Tag Archives: fees

A Logical Approach to Getting into Debt

The largest expense most folks in the U.S. incur is a home. When buying a home most Americans choose to take out a home mortgage. So how do you go about buying a home? I’ll share that with you in the steps below.

To be honest, I have never purchased a home of my own, however, I plan to. These are the steps I will take in a couple years when buying my first place. I also will incorporate the experience and knowledge I’ve learned from my Father who was both a home builder, carpenter and owner multiple times during my teen years and still is today.

Place and Purpose

Where and why you want to purchase a home are some of the most fundamental questions. For example are you wanting to buy in San Fransisco, CA? In that case you’re probably okay with a price range of $300K-$400K+. Thinking about Lansing, MI? It’ll cost you around $75K-$250K. These ranges are drastically different so deciding on where you want to buy is the first step.

Then ask, why am I buying? Maybe you intend to “house hack” and move out a year later to turn it into a rental, or maybe you want a quiet family home in the country that you can live in for 30 years. Maybe you just want a place large enough to house your aging parents as well as your growing family? There are many reasons for buying.

With those two things in mind, your location and your reasons behind buying, you are ready for the next crucial step, Financing and Finances.

Financing and Finances

Financing and Finances are the most analytical and numbers-based part of purchasing a home. First look at your finances. How much house can you afford? How much home do you actually want or need for your situation? In which ways will a home limit or help you financially?

Financing a home is fairly straightforward and complex at the same time. One one hand all you have to do is go to a bank, get approved for a loan, and then pick a house to buy right? While this is certainly the gist of it, there are most considerations and steps involved.

For example how much downpayment are you putting down? This will determine whether or not you need an FHA loan or conventional loan. What interest rate will you most likely have? What kind of monthly payment will that mean and will you be able to afford it? This kind of ties back into the realm of Financial analysis.

Comparing, Choosing and Closing

In you first step you decided on what you wanted generally speaking and where you wanted to live. In the second step you got approved for a loan and made sure you knew how much you were willing to spend and if you could afford it. Now it’s time to find a place.

First you’re going to need a realtor. This real estate agent will be able to help you locate properties in the area you identified. As they show you properties you will get a feel for the characteristics that you like and the ones you don’t. You’ll ask questions like, “would I  be willing to pay more for a pool?” Or, “Should I pay less for no garage?”

After looking at enough properties you will decide upon one or two that suite you. Get you Realtor to put in offer and you may have to negotiate a little. After agreeing on a price and terms (which is often a long process) you will come to sign the contract. As the day of closing comes near you will have to be aware of the following closing costs:

Realtor Commission

Property Appraisal Fee

Due diligence costs

Attorney fees

Other closing costs

These closing costs and others will usually range between 5% to sometimes even 10%.

Next you’ll have to start moving in, which is a whole different process. But for now I hope I’ve helped you develop a plan for your own home buying.

Active Mutual Funds Vs Index Funds: Which is Better?

Mutual Funds

A mutual fund is basically an amount of money that is “mutually funded” by a large amount of people. This money is managed by fund managers who require a percentage fee for their labor. The managers invest in securities and as the value of the investments rise or fall, so the equity of the shareholders in the fund rise and fall.

So if you purchased one $1 share of a $100 fund then you own 1% of the overall value of the fund. If the management’s investments of the fund raise the value to $110 then you just made 10% and your share is now worth $1.10.

This is a very simple overview. Clearly the details are much more complex. For example the management fees, taxes and dividends change the return dynamic. But in terms of understanding the basics of mutuals funds, this does the job.

1. Active Mutual Funds

An active mutual fund is one in which the manger(s) work to select the best security investments they think will produce the best returns. They usually charge a higher management fee because of the perceived value and expertise they provide.

2. Index Funds

The alternative is to have a fund set up in a way that involves very little research and work on the part of the management. “But why wouldn’t you want to take of advantage of the manager’s expertise?” you might ask. The answer comes down to two variables: Cost and performance.

Not only do active mangers usually charge higher fees (cost) but they often don’t actually invest in a way that outperforms the market(performance). So the alternative that involves lower cost is called “index investing”.

An index is essentially a set of stocks that meet certain requirements or have certain common characteristics to one another. For example the most popular index, the Standard and Poor’s 500. It’s an index that takes the 500 largest US stocks on the market.

What this means for index investing is that an S&P 500 Index Fund would be managed in a way to match the S&P 500 index. In other words, the mangers would simply try to buy and sell stocks to keep their investments in line with the 500 largest companies on the market. That’s how they can keep their management fees so low – they don’t have a ton of research to do.

Index Options

But there are other indices. S&P 500 is the most popular but there are others like the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), which is 30 massive companies weighted according to price. The DJIA is the oldest index.

The following are some others that you might like to consider:

The Nasdaq Composite Index

The Nasdaq is actually a stock exchange that predominantly trades technology companies. The index seeks to perform according to the stocks on the exchange.

The Russell 2000

Of the 3000 largest companies in the Russell 3000 (another index), the Russell trades the bottom 2000. Thus, this fund trades mostly smaller to middle size companies.

There are many, many more you can look up on your own. The bottom line is that for most cases index funds provide the better choice.